The submission guidelines can also be downloaded here.
Article length: max 2500 words (excluding bibliography)
Number of figures: max 3
- INTER-SECTION only accepts complete and final manuscripts. Manuscripts that are incomplete or that are not submitted in the right format cannot be taken in consideration.
- Submit files in Word (.doc or .docx).
- Page 1 contains the title and full name(s) of the author, as well as the author’s affiliation(s).
- Page 2 consists of the abstract (between 150 and 200 words) and five indexing keywords that do not appear in the title of the article.
- The main text begins on page 3.
- All text is in UK (as opposed to US) spelling and follows the Oxford English Dictionary. For example: ‘ise’ spellings instead of ‘ize’ in words such as ‘organised’, etc. Hence, it is globalisation and not globalization. Also spell archaeology instead of archeology. Please do not hesitate to contact the Editorial Board if you think your English requires editing.
- Tables, maps and figures: Submit tables, diagrams, figures, etc. in a separate file. These should be numbered consecutively; please, indicate in the text where exactly you want these to be inserted. Digital images must be at least 300 DPI (dots per inch) and minimum format of 10 x 15 cm. TIF, EPS and JPG files are all suitable, but PDF files will not be accepted. The quality of the digital images will be determined by the production coordinator. This depends on the purpose for which the image will be used: a colour spread requires images of extremely high quality and resolution, a small black-and-white image much less so; for black-and-white line artwork the minimum resolution is 600 DPI. Images downloaded from the internet are as a rule not intended for print and will therefore not be accepted. Any desired groupings, sizing and scale reductions should be given where possible; otherwise this is at the editor’s discretion. NB! The author should obtain written evidence of permission to reproduce images from the copyright owner for the use of any illustrative matter in this publication. Please make sure the caption includes relevant credit of the copyright holder.
- Articles are submitted electronically before the deadline to firstname.lastname@example.org.
A well-structured scientific paper (as well as a good essay or thesis) consists of the following parts:
- Brief introduction of the wider theme and its importance;
- Brief overview of the current state of affairs surrounding the specific topic, identifying the gap in knowledge that the research will fill;
- Research question(s) and hypotheses, and how these will be addressed.
A good introduction starts broad, narrows down towards the research questions and has each step follow logically from the previous one.
Materials and/or Methods:
- Presentation of the applied methods. If the methodology was developed for this specific research project or if certain aspects of it diverge from the common practice, choices underlying these decisions should be motivated as well.
- Presentation of results. This section should not include discussion or interpretation of the results.
- Discussion and interpretation of the results, with relevant references to other (similar) studies.
- Brief overview of the interpretations/conclusions best supported by the data. No new data or ideas should be presented here.
- Brief discussion of the implications of the conclusions for the wider field.
While we encourage you to use the structure presented here, you are free to adjust this format to better fit your specific research topic, as long as all elements are present. Nevertheless, the focus should always be on the presentation and discussion of your own data. Additionally, it is important to avoid repetition, especially in a short paper (2500 words). Describe each concept or aspect of your research in such a way (sufficient detail) that it only needs to be explained once.
Tips & Tricks: in general a good paper follows an hourglass structure; starting broad, narrowing down towards the research questions, and following the opposite trend in the discussion and conclusion. In order to translate a large BA or (R)MA thesis into a clear and concise paper, it can be helpful to start by composing an outline (based on the elements described above) in which every component is summarised in one or two sentences. Finally, we suggest having a look at papers, preferably on similar topics, published in other peer-reviewed journals (e.g. Journal of Archaeological Science; Journal of Human Evolution; World Archaeology).
Title: Times New Roman. 14pt. Bold. Caps. Centred.
A maximum number of 100 characters (incl. spaces) is permitted. Although a good title should grab the attention of potential readers, it foremost has the function to introduce the topic, and the spatial and temporal span of the research. The use of a sub-title is allowed, though the most important information should be put in the title.
Author name(s): Times New Roman. 12 pt. Centred.
Author affiliation(s): Times New Roman. 12pt. Flush left. The completeness of affiliation details is left to individuals. Authors are encouraged to provide e-mail addresses and social media accounts if applicable (Academia, ResearchGate, Twitter, LinkedIn). These will be used for promotion purposes and will be placed at the first page of the article.
Abstract: Times New Roman. 12pt. Italic. The abstract contains between 150 and 200 words. Bear in mind that an abstract is different from a summary in that it takes the relevance of your study to a broader scientific level: why would people interested in this topic want to read about your specific research? How does it contribute to the broader themes? Authors are discouraged to use paragraphs in their abstract.
Keywords: A total of 5 keywords is required. These are used by potential readers as well as search-engines so be specific and think conceptual at the same time. Don’t be too broad (e.g. “archaeology”, “cultural heritage” etc.) and think of what interested readers will search for.
Main text: Times New Roman. 12 pt.
Headings: Times New Roman. 12 pt. Bold.
The usage of headings may help a reader to scan through an article. Too much headings, however, will only distract, as individual articles should consist of a maximum of 2500 words. Authors are discouraged to use sub-headings.
Paragraphs should not have the first line indented. Paragraphs must be separated by a one-line (12 pt.) gap.
Line spacing 1.5.
Margins left and right 2.5 cm.
Page numbers on every page below the text (right).
Quotations: Times New Roman. 11 pt. Always use single quotation marks for dialogue and quoted material in the text. Reserve the use of double quotation marks for quotes within quotes, e.g. ‘Edward thought that the development site was a typical example of “in situ”
heritage management.’ The full stop only falls inside the quotation mark if the material quoted is a complete sentence. Substantial quotes are not encouraged, but where they are thought to enhance the paper they should be set as a separate paragraph and be in italics, no quotation marks required.
Brackets [ ]: Square brackets are used when you want to add information to a quotation. Normally, a quotation must be presented exactly as it was spoken or written. The square bracket, however, allow for an opportunity to fix mistakes, add explanatory information, change a quote to fit in a sentence, or add emphasis to a word through bold or italics. The information in the bracket cannot alter the meaning of the quoted material, e.g. “Books used [in classes] show methods of finding information but not much information in preparation of the review [italics added]”.
All Latin and non-English language terms should be given in italics.
Dates: Set dates out as follows:‘8 July 1995’,‘on 8 July’, ‘on the 8th’;‘1990s’ (not spelt out, no apostrophe);‘nineteenth century’(not 19th century);‘1995–7’,‘1914–18’. Use the notations BCE and CE (as opposed to BC/AD) for potentially confusing chronologies.
Numbers: Spell out numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, e.g. 12 km, 10 years old. You should use numerals for percentages in the text but spell out ‘percent’, e.g. 24 percent. The percentage sign (%) should be used only in tables and figures.
Abbreviations: Always provide the full name of an abbreviation when you for the first time mention this abbreviation. Directly after the full name, you will provide the abbreviation in between brackets. Thereafter you can use the abbreviation without referring to the full name. For example: The Organisationfor Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) influenced the state of affairs in Uganda. In its activities, the OSCE had been active in the area … etc. NB you do not have to provide a full name when the abbreviation is self-evident i.e. the USA or UNESCO.
In the text placed after a particular remark or citation. If you refer to a certain statement or data, you will have to include the page number.
- One author or editor: (Camporeale 2008, 43)
- Two authors or editors: (Renfrew and Bahn 1980, 55)
- More than two authors or editors: (De Pous et al. 1987, 23)
- More references at one time: in alphabetical order divided by semicolon (Greene 2003, 12; Renfrew and Bahn 1994, 234)
- Always use primary sources. If that is impossible (very old or out of print books) refer as follows: (Pietersen 1899 in Jansen 2008, 88). In this case, the primary source does NOT appear in your bibliography, as this would erroneously suggest that you have read the work yourself.
- If you refer to a certain figure: (Bintliff 2012, 156 fig. 6.1)
- References to different types of sources, such as ancient authors or archival material, are more complex: they will be explained further under point 8: Exceptions.
See also the extensive list of examples at the end of this document
Foot- and endnotes
The purpose of foot- or endnotes is to clarify an aspect of your discourse without disrupting the main argument. Here you can place information that is interesting or indirectly relevant. Correct use of footnotes may enrich a paper; however, be sure to use footnotes sparingly, as they can be very distracting. Please note, that information given in foot- or endnotes should add or be relevant to your argument in the text. If this is not necessarily the case, please consider the opportunity to leave the information out of the text.
Parantheses ( ): Parantheses are, apart from referencing, used to provide additional information in a sentence that gives greater detail to the information presented, e.g. ‘Use the notations BCE and CE (as opposed to BC/AD)’. The information in between parantheses, however, is often extra and not really necessary, and if this information does not really add something to your argument please consider the opportunity to leave the information out of the text. ‘Brackets within brackets’ are not allowed.
- Numbered and placed in text consecutively.
- All figures must have clear captions (Times New Roman 11pt italics), either below or next to the figure (never above).
- Reference is included in the caption (Williams 2008, 21 fig. 4).
- If a figure is adapted, please type: (after Williams 2008, 21 fig. 4).
- A figure must be referred to in the text: (fig. 1), etc., in a consecutive manner.
- Maps are figures and must include location, scale and orientation.
- Tables are used for lists or charts.
- Tables should also be numbered consecutively, independent from the figures.
- Tables have clear captions above the table (Times New Roman 11pt italics).
- Reference is in the caption (Williams 2008, 21 table 4).
- If a table is adapted, please type: (after Williams 2008, 21 table 4)
- A table must be referred to in the text (tab. 1), etc.
- Similar to figures, table 2 is always placed in the text after table 1 etc. This is independent from the numbering of the figures.
- All literature used in text, figures, tables and appendices appears in the bibliography.
- The references are in alphabetical order of author’s last name.
- Abbreviations are not permitted: not for journal titles, not for an extensive list of authors. The only exceptions are (ed) or (eds) for editor or editors (NB: no full stop).
- In the case of an extensive list of authors: while in the text you may substitute et al., (after the first author), all authors must be listed in the bibliography.
- First names are abbreviated to initials.
- For classical sources, archive texts, interviews and internet pages there are different rules: see exceptions section.
See also the extensive list of examples at the end of this document and please note that this format is different from the guidelines currently used at the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University!
Acknowledgements and Copyright
- The author is responsible to gain permission for publishing intellectual property of others. For instance, when the study includes and presents data which is gathered by people other than the author (e.g. unpublished pre-studies, databases, fieldwork).
- All organizations and persons that have directly or indirectly contributed to the published study (e.g. teachers, referee(s), colleagues, project directors etc.) should be adequately referred to in the acknowledgements at the end of the article.
Examples of Bibliography Format
- The bibliography must conform to the standard below (note the correct use of capital letters, commas and full stops and note that this format is different from the guidelines that are currently used at the Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University):
Book, single author
Seidler, V.J., 1994. Recovering the Self: Morality and Social Theory. London: Routledge.
Book, multiple authors or editors
Schortman, E.M. and P.A. Urban (eds), 1992. Resources, Power and Interregional Interaction. New York (NY): Plenum Press.
Book in series
Pare, C.F.E., 1992. Wagons and Wagon Graves of the Early Iron Age in Central Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press (Oxford University Committee for Archaeology Monograph 35).
Chapter or article in an edited volume
Frankel, D., 1991. Ceramic Variability: Measurement and Meaning, in J.A. Barlow, D. Bolger and B. Kling (eds), Cypriot Ceramics: Reading the Prehistoric Record. Philadelphia (PA): University of Pennsylvania, University Museum (University Museum Monograph 74), 241-52.
De Maret, P., P. Lavachery and B. Gouem, 2008. Grands travaux publics grandes opportunités archéologiques? Evaluation d’un siècle d’expériences en Afrique, in B.O.M. Naffé, R. Lanfranchi and N. Schlanger (eds), L’Archéologie Préventive en Afrique: Enjeux et Perspectives: Actes du Colloque de Nouakchott, 1er-3 Février 2007. Saint-Maur-des-Fossés: Éditions Sépia, 142-52.
Journal article (including e-journals)
Pauli, L., 1985. Einige Anmerkungen zum Problem der Hortfunde. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 15(2), 195-206.
E-journals without page numbers:
Currie, E.J., 2001. A Late Period Caranqui Chiefdom in the Northern Highlands of Ecuador: Archaeological Investigations at Hacienda Zuleta. Internet Archaeology 10, http://intarch.ac.uk/journal/issue10/currie_index.html
In case there are more articles of one author, keep to chronological order. Articles
where the author had co-authors follow alphabetically:
Bednarik, R.G., 1996a. A Neolithic horse burial in Italy. The Artefact 19, 102-3.
Bednarik, R.G., 1996b. Only time will tell: a review of the methodology of direct rock art dating. Archaeometry 38(1), 1-13.
Bednarik, R.G., 1998. Bronze Age horse burials in Italy. The Artefact 21, 12-8.
Bednarik, R.G., J. Etkinson and P. Old, 1995. Bronze Age horse burials in England. The Artefact 12, 12-15.
Bednarik, R.G. and P. Old, 1963. Bronze Age horse burials in Germany. The Artefact 1, 12-8.
Council of Europe, 1992. European Convention on the Protection of the Archaeological Heritage (Revised), Valetta, 16 January 1992. Council of Europe Treaties 143. http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/en/Treaties/Html/143.htm, accessed on 27 April 2011.
Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap, 2007. Wet op de Archeologische Monumentenzorg. Den Haag: Ministerie van OCW. http://wetten.overheid.nl, accessed on 29 March 2012.
Unpublished reports: excavation reports, PvE’s, theses
Although excavation reports are not formally regarded as scientific literature (since they are not peer-reviewed), they are vital data sources in archaeology. Theses are also often used. Such resources should be added to the bibliography in the following way:
Reybrouck, D. van, 2000. From primitives to primates. A history of ethnographic and primatological analogies in the study of prehistory. Leiden (unpublished Ph.D. thesis University of Leiden).
Habraken, J., 2012. Programma van Eisen (PvE) Ruimtevoor de Waal – Nijmegen dijk teruglegging binnendijks, Onderzoekplangebied west aandachtsgebied Ha. Intern Rapport Gemeente Nijmegen.
Report without author(s)
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, 2012. Een toekomst voor groen. Handreiking voor de instandhouding van Groene monumenten. Brochure Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, Amersfoort.
Report in a series
Verschoof, W.B., Sprangers, J., and L.J. Keunen, 2012. Het Hof van Hillegom; archaeologisch vooronderzoek: een bureau- en inventariserend veldonderzoek. RAAP-rapport 2576. RAAP Archaeologisch Adviesbureau, Weesp.
Exceptions in the bibliography
Sources that do not conform to the above format, such as internet pages, classical authors, interviews and archival texts should be placed in separate lists, which are listed prior to the bibliography.
- Internet pages are only allowed if they contain primary information (for example: Archis). Refer to page and date of consultation. Never refer to Wikipedia as the only or primary source of information.
- In the text, an internet page can be abbreviated if it contains a long link. However, the bibliography contains the full address, plus the date the page was accessed. Do not use a hyperlink!
- Example: if you use the Dutch IKAW, that can be downloaded from the RCE website, the text will contain the reference (www.cultureelerfgoed.nl), while the bibliography contains the full link: http://www.cultureelerfgoed.nl/node/70, accessed on 6 December 2012.
Newspaper article without an author
The Times 7 March 2012, 4-5.
- Ancient authors are primary sources. All ancient authors and titles used in the text should be listed according to a standard abbreviation system, Der Neue Pauly, translated in English as “The New Pauly”, which can be looked into in the Leiden University Library (ISSN 1574-9347).
- The reference in the text must indicate the numbering of the exact text passages in Arabic numbers, e.g. (Cass. Dio 52, 24, 4).
- In this example, the numbers are referring to the standard numerical system of the printed version of the classical sources (e.g. de Loeb Classical Library). In this example, 52 indicates the book, 24 the paragraph, and 4 the section.
- In the bibliography, this reference will be included under a separate heading: “Ancient Sources”, with all ancient authors in alphabetic order—but in this case, the source or name of the author must be written in full, and NOT be abbreviated. Under each ancient author his different works must be listed, also in alphabetical order (as given by the New Pauly). The list should be placed in front of the bibliography,
Examples ancient sources:
Lysias, Lysias, Chapter 21, line 2.
Titus Maccius Plautus (Plautus), Captivi, Line 198-205.
Titus Maccius Plautus (Plautus), Poenulus, Line 129-139.
In the case of documents from archives (e.g. letters), a different method applies also. Frequently, the author is unknown, and there are no page numbers; therefore it is the archive that is of primary importance.
- In the bibliography, the reference is to be included under a separate heading, with the archives in alphabetical order, written in full, followed by the abbreviation that is used in the text:
Regionaal Archief Leiden (RAL), Stadsarchief 1253-1575 (SA I)
See: J.C. Overvoorde, 1937: Archief der secretarie van de stad Leiden, 1253-1575. Inventaris en regesten, Leiden.
Inv.nr. 84.Stedeboek (1348-1522)
Inv. 387-389 Aflezingsboeken (1505-1574)
- In the text, the reference must indicate the exact passage, for example: (RAL, SA I, inv.nr. 84, f. 24). RAL refers to Regionaal Archief Leiden (Regional Archives of Leiden), SA I to stadsarchief, inv. nr. 84 refersto inventory number 84 from the Stedeboek and f. 24 refersto folio 24.
- Archive files do not have a page number. When referencing the backside of the page (the verso side), the reference would look like the following example: (RAL,SA I, inv.nr. 84, f. 270 vso); when referencing the file’s date: (RAL, SA I, inv.nr.389, f. 120, 28-01-1574).
- Library pieces that are kept in an archive must also be referenced as archive source (including the location):
Ordonnantieendegildebrief van de Bidders, ofteNoodersterBegraeffenisse.
Some specialisations, such as Museum Studies, make frequent use of interviews as a data source for research. Such sources do not belong in the scientific bibliography, but should be included in a separate list. Interviews carried out by the student should be included as an Appendix; in the text, this (numbered) appendix should be referred to, similar to figures and tables.