Submission Guidelines

  • The submission guidelines can also be downloaded here.
All manuscripts submitted to INTER-SECTION need to adhere to these guidelines. Since 01-08-2022 INTER-SECTION uses APA7 as a reference system. INTER-SECTION therefore now follows the new Faculty of Archaeology guidelines concerning referencing and bibliography.
Authors who started their manuscript before that date have the option to either use APA7 or to continue using the old INTER-SECTION guidelines. INTER-SECTION adopted APA7 because it can be used with a reference manager like EndNote and because the Faculty of Archaeology now requires APA7 for student theses and assignments. The official version of the APA7 style, with examples, can be found at:
The Concise APA Handbook (Lida et al., 2020) can be found online, available in Leiden University’s library. Some of the examples below are taken from the website.

Article length:           max. 2500 words

Amount of figures:    max. 3

Submitting manuscripts
  • INTER-SECTION only accepts complete and final manuscripts. Manuscripts that are incomplete or that are not submitted in the right format cannot be taken in consideration.
  • Submit files in Word (.doc or .docx).
  • Page 1 contains the title and full name(s) of the author, as well as the author’s affiliation(s).
  • Page 2 consists of the abstract (between 150 and 200 words) and five indexing keywords that do not appear in the title of the article.
  • The main text begins on page 3.
  • All text is in UK (as opposed to US) spelling and follows the Oxford English Dictionary. For example: ‘ise’ spellings instead of ‘ize’ in words such as ‘organised’, etc. Hence, it is  ‘globalisation’ and not  ‘globalization’. Also spell  ‘archaeology’ instead of  ‘archeology’. Please do not hesitate to contact the Editorial Board if you think your English requires editing.
  • Tables, maps and figures: Submit tables, diagrams, figures, etc. in a separate file. These should be numbered consecutively; please, indicate in the text where exactly you want these to be inserted. Digital images must be at least 300 DPI (dots per inch) and minimum format of 10 x 15 cm. TIF, EPS and JPG files are all suitable, but PDF files will not be accepted. The quality of the digital images will be determined by the production coordinator. This depends on the purpose for which the image will be used: a colour spread requires images of extremely high quality and resolution, a small black-and-white image much less so; for black-and-white line artwork the minimum resolution is 600 DPI. Images downloaded from the internet are as a rule not intended for print and will therefore not be accepted. Any desired groupings, sizing and scale reductions should be given where possible; otherwise this is at the editor’s discretion.
NB! The author should obtain written evidence of permission to reproduce images from the copyright owner for the use of any illustrative matter in this publication. Please make sure the caption includes relevant credit of the copyright holder.
Structure guidelines

A well-structured scientific paper (as well as a good essay or thesis) consists of the following parts:

Introduction: (±500 words)

  • Brief introduction of the wider theme and its importance;
  • Brief overview of the current state of affairs surrounding the specific topic, identifying the gap in knowledge that the research will fill;
  • Research question(s) and hypotheses, and how these will be addressed.

    -> a good introduction starts broad, narrows down towards the research questions and has each step follow logically from the previous one

Methodology: (as short as possible)

  • Presentation of the applied methods. If the methodology was developed for this specific research project or if certain aspects of it diverge from the common practice, choices underlying these decisions should be motivated as well.


  • Presentation of  results. This section should not include discussion or interpretations.


  • Discussion and interpretation of the results, with relevant references to other (similar) studies.

Conclusion: (±300 words)

  • Brief overview of the interpretations/conclusions best supported by the data. No new data or ideas should be presented here.
  • Brief discussion of the implications of the conclusions for the wider field.

While we encourage you to use the structure presented here, you are free to adjust this format to better fit your specific research topic, as long as all elements are present. Nevertheless, the focus should always be on the presentation and discussion of your own data. Additionally, it is important to avoid repetition, especially in a short paper (2500 words). Describe each concept or aspect of your research in such a way (sufficient detail) that it only needs to be explained once.

Tips & Tricks: in general a good paper follows an hourglass structure; starting broad, narrowing down towards the research questions, and following the opposite trend in the discussion and conclusion. In order to translate a large BA or (R)MA thesis into a clear and concise paper, it can be helpful to start by composing an outline (based on the elements described above) in which every component is summarised in one or two sentences. Finally, we suggest having a look at papers, preferably on similar topics, published in other peer-reviewed journals (e.g. Journal of Archaeological Science; Journal of Human Evolution; World Archaeology).
Style guidelines

Title: Times New Roman. 14pt. Bold. Caps. Centred.

A maximum number of 100 characters (incl. spaces) is permitted. Although a good title should grab the attention of potential readers, it foremost has the function to introduce the topic, and the spatial and temporal span of the research. The use of a sub-title is allowed, though the most important information should be put in the title.

Author name(s): Times New Roman. 12 pt. Centred.

Author affiliation(s): Times New Roman. 12pt. Flush left.

The completeness of affiliation details is left to individuals. Authors are encouraged to provide e-mail addresses and social media accounts if applicable (Academia, ResearchGate, Twitter, LinkedIn). These will be used for promotion purposes and will be placed at the first page of the article.

Abstract: Times New Roman. 12pt. Italic.

The abstract contains between 150 and 200 words. Bear in mind that an abstract is different from a summary in that it takes the relevance of your study to a broader scientific level: why would people interested in this topic want to read about your specific research? How does it contribute to the broader themes? Authors are discouraged to use paragraphs in their abstract.

Keywords: A total of 5 keywords is required. These are used by potential readers as well as search-engines so be specific and think conceptual at the same time. Don’t be too broad (e.g. “archaeology”, “cultural heritage” etc.) and think of what interested readers will search for.

Main text: Times New Roman. 12 pt.

Headings: Times New Roman. 12 pt. Bold.

The usage of headings may help a reader to scan through an article. Too much headings, however, will only distract, as individual articles should consist of a maximum of 2500 words. Authors are discouraged to use sub-headings.

Paragraphs should not have the first line indented. Paragraphs must be separated by a one-line (12 pt.) gap.

Line spacing: 1.5.

Margins: left and right 2.5 cm.

Page numbers: on every page below the text (right).

Quotations: Times New Roman. 11 pt.

Always use single quotation marks for dialogue and quoted material in the text. Reserve the use of double quotation marks for quotes within quotes, e.g. ‘Edward thought that the development site was a typical example of “in situ” heritage management.’ The full stop only falls inside the quotation mark if the material quoted is a complete sentence. Substantial quotes are not encouraged, but where they are thought to enhance the paper they should be set as a separate paragraph and be in italics, no quotation marks required.

Brackets [ ]: Square brackets are used when you want to add information to a quotation. Normally, a quotation must be presented exactly as it was spoken or written. The square bracket, however, allow for an opportunity to fix mistakes, add explanatory information, change a quote to fit in a sentence, or add emphasis to a word through bold or italics. The information in the bracket cannot alter the meaning of the quoted material, e.g. ‘Books used [in classes] show methods of finding information but not much information in preparation of the review [italics added]’.

All Latin and non-English language terms should be given in italics. Common abbreviations such as ‘e.g.’, ‘i.e.’, ‘et al.’,  ‘c.’, ‘etc.’ do not need to be italicised.

Dates: Set dates out as follows: ‘8 July 1995’, ‘on 8 July’, ‘on the 8th’; ‘1990s’ (not spelt out, no apostrophe); ‘nineteenth century’ (not 19th century); ‘1995–7’, ‘1914–18’. Use the notations BCE and CE (as opposed to BC/AD) for potentially confusing chronologies.

Numbers: Spell out numbers under 10. Use numerals for measurements, e.g. 12 km, 10 years old. You should use numerals for percentages in the text but spell out ‘percent’, e.g. 24 percent. The percentage sign (%) should be used only in tables and figures.

Abbreviations: Always provide the full name of an abbreviation when you for the first time mention this abbreviation. Directly after the full name, you will provide the abbreviation in between brackets. Thereafter you can use the abbreviation without referring to the full name. For example:  ‘The Organisation for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) influenced the state of affairs in Uganda. In its activities, the OSCE had been active in the area (…).’
NB! you do not have to provide a full name when the abbreviation is self-evident, e.g. the USA or UNESCO.

Foot- and endnotes: The purpose of foot- or endnotes is to clarify an aspect of your discourse without disrupting the main argument. Here you can place information that is interesting or indirectly relevant. Correct use of footnotes may enrich a paper; however, be sure to use footnotes sparingly, as they can be very distracting. Please note, that information given in foot- or endnotes should add or be relevant to your argument in the text. If this is not necessarily the case, please consider the opportunity to leave the information out of the text.

Parantheses ( ): Parantheses are, apart from referencing, used to provide additional information in a sentence that gives greater detail to the information presented, e.g. ‘Use the notations BCE and CE (as opposed to BC/AD)’. The information in between parantheses, however, is often extra and not really necessary, and if this information does not really add something to your argument please consider the opportunity to leave the information out of the text. ‘Brackets within brackets’ are not allowed.

In-Text Citations

APA format uses in-text citations, not footnotes. For a more elaborate explanation, see Chapter 4  ‘In-text citation’ in The Concise APA Handbook (Lida et al., 2020).

Single author:

a) Open parenthesis

b) Author’s surname

c) Comma

d) Year of publication

e) Comma

f) p. + number (if needed)

g) Close parenthesis

Example: This sentence cites one reference by a single author (Düring, 2006, p. 12).

Two authors:

a) Open parenthesis

b) First author’s surname

c) &

d) Second author’s surname

e) Comma

f) Year of publication

g) Comma

h) p. + number (if needed)

i) Close parenthesis

Example: This sentence cites a reference with two authors (Pitts & Versluys, 2014, p. 14).

Three or more authors:

a) Open parenthesis

b) First author’s surname

c) et al. (this Latin abbreviation is short for et alia, meaning and others. It is not italicised)

d) Comma

e) Year of publication

f) Comma

g) p. + number (if needed)

h) Close parenthesis

Example: This sentence cites a reference with three authors (Pitts et al., 2002, p. 54)

Some things to note

Sources can be cited either parenthetically or narratively.

: Parenthetical citations are important (Düring, 2006).

Example: Düring (2006) claims that citations are important.

The in-text citation always precedes the terminal punctuation (comma, full stop) but follows quotations marks. An exception are question marks and exclamation marks, if they are part of the quotation.

Example: This phrase cites one reference (Düring, 2006, p. 12), and the second one cites two references (Düring, 2006, p. 12; Pitts & Versluys, 2014, p. 14).

Example: ‘References are important’ (Düring, 2006, p. 12).

Example: ‘Are references important?’(Düring, 2006, p. 12).

Sources are listed alphabetically in the citation, separated by a semi-colon.

Example: This sentence cites two references (Düring, 2006; Pitts & Versluys, 2014).

Incorrect example: This sentence cites two references (Düring, 2006) (Pitts, 2014).

In narrative citations, the page number can be placed immediately following the date or at the end of the quotation. Either is correct, but be consistent.

Example: Düring (2006) argues, ‘citations are important’ (p. 10).

Example: Pitts and Versluys (2014, p. 12) state, ‘citations are important.’

In parenthetical citations, an ampersand (&) is used, but in narrative citations, the word ‘and’ is used.

Example: Citations are important (Pitts & Versluys, 2014, p. 14).

Example: Pitts and Versluys (2014, p. 14) state that citations are important.

When two or more sources by the same author are cited, the surname is only given once

and the sources listed chronologically. However, when one of the sources is multi-authored, it is cited separately.

Example: (Pitts, 2003, 2021; Pitts & Versluys, 2014)

References (with examples)
General format for books and journal articles

a) Author(s): Surname, comma, initials of the author.

• One space between initials. Write the author’s name exactly as it appears on the                             published work.

b) Year of publication. Open round parenthesis, year of publication, close round                             parenthesis, full stop.

c) Title of publication.

• A work that stands alone is in italics (book titles, report titles, dissertation titles journal titles). Titles of book chapters and journal articles are in Roman script (also known as standard or upright script), not in italics.

• Only the initial word of the title, the first word following a colon and proper nouns    
              are capitalised in English titles. An exception is the titles of journals, where all
              major words are capitalised.

• Non-English titles follow the capitalisation conventions of the relevant language,
              e.g., all nouns are capitalized in German titles.

d) Publisher (for books).

• Including the location of publication was required in APA6 but is not required in
              APA7. If you wish to include the location of the publisher, then use this format:
              location, colon, publisher.

e) Journal details. Journal Title, volume number (issue number), page numbers.

f) DOI (digital object identifier). If available, always include the DOI. For details, please               consult the APA website,


Düring, B. (2006). Constructing communities: Clustered neighbourhood settlements of the Central Anatolian Neolithic, ca. 8500–5500, cal. BC. Nederlands Instituut voor het Nabije Oosten.

Pitts, M., & Versluys, M. J. (2014). Globalisation and the Roman world. Cambridge University Press.

Schrader, S. (2019). Activity, diet and social practice: Addressing everyday life in human skeletal remains. Springer.

More on books:

Journal articles

Field, M. H., Ntinou, M., Tsartsidou, G., Berge Henegouwen, D. van, Risberg, J., Tourloukis, V., Thompson, N., Karkanas P., Panagopoulou E., & Harvati K. (2018). A palaeoenvironmental reconstruction (based on palaeobotanical data and diatoms) of the Middle Pleistocene elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) butchery site at Marathousa, Megalopolis, Greece. Quaternary International, 497, 108–122.

van den Dries, M. (2011). The good, the bad and the ugly? Evaluating three models of implementing the Valletta Convention. World Archaeology, 43(4), 594–604.

van Oosten, R. (2016). The Dutch great stink: The end of the cesspit era in the pre-industrial towns of Leiden and Haarlem. European Journal of Archaeology, 19(4), 704–727. doi:10.1080/14619571.2016.1147677

More on journal articles:

Book chapters

Kuper, H. (2003). The language of sites in the politics of space. In S. M. Low & D. Lawrence-Zúñiga (Eds.), The anthropology of space and place: Locating culture (pp. 247–263).

Note: in the case of a book chapter, the page range includes the abbreviation pp., but page ranges for journal articles do not.

More on book chapters:

Some things to note

The author and year in in-text citation need to correspond to the reference list entry.


van den Dries, M. (2011). The good, the bad and the ugly? Evaluating three models of implementing the Valletta Convention. World Archaeology, 43(4), 594–604.

Corresponding in-text citation: (van den Dries, 2011)

References are listed alphabetically by author’s surnames. If there are two or more sources by the same author, they are listed chronologically.


Kuper, H. (2003). The language of sites in the politics of space. In S. M. Low & D. Lawrence-Zúñiga (Eds.), The anthropology of space and place: Locating culture (pp. 247–263). Blackwell.

Kuper, H. (2009). Costume and identity. Cambridge University Press.

van den Dries, M. (2011). The good, the bad and the ugly? Evaluating three models of implementing the Valletta Convention. World Archaeology, 43(4), 594–604.

Unlike in-text citations, sources in the reference list with multiple authors should include all authors.


Haar, J. M., Rosso, M., Suñe, A., & Ollier-Malaterre, A. (2014). Outcomes of work-life balance on job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 85(3), 361–373.

Corresponding in-text citation: (Haar et al., 2014)

Some things to note about Dutch surnames

Many Dutch (and French, German, Spanish) names contain particles and articles (de, den, van). In APA, particles/articles are treated as part of the name. This means that names are alphabetised in the reference list according to the particle/article. This is different from the traditional Dutch convention.

 APA style 
Full nameReference listIn-text citation
J. de Bruinde Bruin, J. (2015)(de Bruin, 2015)
M. van den Driesvan den Dries, M. (2015)(van den Dries, 2015)
R. M. R. van Oostenvan Oosten, R. M. R. (2015)(van Oosten, 2015)
L. Llorente RodriguezLlorente Rodriguez, L. (2015)(Llorente Rodriguez, 2015)
C. van Driel-Murrayvan Driel-Murray, C. (2015)(van Driel-Murray, 2015)
Unpublished reports (excavation reports, project briefs) and theses

Here are some typical archaeology examples. For others, please see Chapter 5 of The Concise APA Handbook (Lida et al., 2020) or visit the APA website.

Unpublished thesis

van Reybrouck, D. (2000). From primitives to primates: A history of ethnographic and primatological analogies in the study of prehistory, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Leiden University.

Although excavation reports are not regarded as scientific literature (since they are not peer-reviewed), they are vital data sources in archaeology. Here are examples of several reports that should be included in the reference list:

Project brief

Habraken, J. (2012). Programma van Eisen (PvE) Ruimte voor de Waal—Nijmegendijkteruglegging binnendijks, Onderzoek plangebied west aandachtsgebied Ha. Intern Rapport Gemeente Nijmegen.

Organisational report without an author

Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed. (2012). Een toekomst voor groen. Handreiking voor de instandhouding van Groene monumenten. Brochure Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed.

Corresponding in-text citation: (Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed, 2012)

Note: Organisational acronyms are allowed in in-text citations but must be included in the reference list following the full name of the organisation.

More examples:

Report in a series

Verschoof, W. B., Sprangers, J., & Keunen, L. J. (2012). Het Hof van Hillegom; archaeologisch vooronderzoek: Een bureau- en inventariserend veldonderzoek. RAAP-rapport 2576. RAAP Archeologisch Adviesbureau.

Listing other sources
Ancient sources

Certain sources, such as ancient sources, are considered primary sources. While included in the reference list, they should be listed separately from, and prior to, the secondary sources. These ancient sources are also listed alphabetically, as per The New Pauly.

Headings should be used in the reference list: Ancient Sources, Secondary Sources. The source or name of the author must be written in full, and not abbreviated.

In-text citations of these sources should use the standard abbreviations provided by Der Neue Pauly, translated in English as The New Pauly. The list of standard abbreviations is available online (access through Leiden University):

The in-text citation must indicate the numbering of the exact text passage in Arabic numerals. In the example, the numbers refer to the standard numerical system of the printed version of the classical sources (i.e., Loeb Classical Library). In this example, 52 indicates the book, 24 the section, and 4 the paragraph.

Example: (Cass. Dio 52, 24, 4).


Some area specialisations, such as Museum Studies, make frequent use of interviews. Please make sure to refer to the source where your original interviews can be found. This can be the appendix of your thesis or an online repository where the interviews are stored.

  • Numbered and placed in text consecutively.
  • All figures must have clear captions (Times New Roman 11pt italics), either below or next to the figure (never above).
  • Reference is included in the caption (Williams, 2008, p. 21 fig. 4).
  • If a figure is adapted, please type: (after Williams, 2008, p. 21 fig. 4).
  • A figure must be referred to in the text: (fig. 1), etc., in a consecutive manner.
  • Maps are figures and must include location, scale and orientation.
  • Tables are used for lists or charts.
  • Tables should also be numbered consecutively, independent from the figures.
  • Tables have clear captions above the table (Times New Roman 11pt italics).
  • Reference is in the caption (Williams, 2008, p. 21 table 4).
  • If a table is adapted, please type: (after Williams 2008, 21 table 4)
  • A table must be referred to in the text (tab. 1), etc.
  • Similar to figures, table 2 is always placed in the text after table 1 etc. This is independent from the numbering of the figures.
  • All literature used in text, figures, tables and appendices appears in the bibliography.
  • The references are in alphabetical order of author’s last name.
  • Abbreviations are not permitted: not for journal titles, not for an extensive list of authors. The only exceptions are (Ed.) or (Eds.) for editor or editors.
  • In the case of an extensive list of authors: while in the text you may substitute et al., (after the first author), all authors must be listed in the bibliography.
  • First names are abbreviated to initials.
  • For classical sources, archive texts, interviews and internet pages there are different rules: see the Ancient sources section.
Acknowledgements and copyright
  • The author is responsible to gain permission for publishing intellectual property of others. For instance, when the study includes and presents data which is gathered by people other than the author (e.g. unpublished pre-studies, databases, fieldwork).
  • All organisations and persons that have directly or indirectly contributed to the published study (e.g. teachers, referee(s), colleagues, project directors etc.) should be adequately referred to in the acknowledgements at the end of the article.
Reference list

Lida, P., Rachael, R., de Boer, M., Naoko Araki, M., & Agnello, F. (2020). The concise APA handbook: APA 7th edition. Information Age Publishing. E-book is available in the library.

For more information, check the official website of APA7,

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